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Sié Chéou-Kang CenterPrivate Security Monitor

Faiza Patel, Chairperson of the five-member UN Working Group on the use of mercenaries briefs correspondents on the Group’s visits to Equatorial Guinea, Iraq and South Africa.

Global Efforts

UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries

The Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries was established in July 2005 pursuant to Commission on Human Rights Resolution 2005/2. The Working Group monitors and researches mercenaries and mercenary-related activities in all their manifestations, including companies that provide military and security services. It also develops guidelines; conducts country visits; receives individual complaints; publishes annual reports, studies, and articles; and presents proposals to encourage the further protection of human rights. Among the many contributions of the Working Group are two reports that include recommendations to the UN for the drafting of a Convention regulating PMSCs.

The main elements of the proposed Convention reaffirm the state monopoly on the legitimate use of force; identify state functions that cannot be outsourced to PMSCs; and apply international human rights standards to regulate PMSC use of force and firearms. The work on the draft Convention is now overseen by the open-ended intergovernmental working group. Five independent, pro bono experts serve on the Working Group. For a list of current members, visit the Working Group's website.

The United Nations Working Group on the use of mercenaries convened an expert panel event on Thursday, 21 July 2016 at the United Nations in New York to exchange views on the privatization of war and its impacts on human rights (Read the Concept Note and the Report) and reflect on the UN Guidelines for the use of armed private security companies, promulgated by the UN Department of Safety and Security in 2012. View the press conference of the event below:

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Resolutions

UN Human Rights Council, 21st Session (A/HRC/21/L.17)

Author: UN Human Rights Council
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In this Resolution, the Human Rights Council requests that all states continue to develop national legislation governing the use of mercenaries and private security services. The HRC resolution requests the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries to continue its investigations into the use of mercenaries worldwide, and welcomes a new draft definition of 'mercenary' put forth by the Special Rapporteur. 

UN Human Rights Council - 21st Session (A/HRC/RES/21/8)

Author: UN Human Rights Council
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In this Resolution, adopted from the draft version A/HRC/21/L/17, the Human Rights Council requests that all states continue to develop national legislation governing the use of mercenaries and private security services. The HRC resolution requests the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries to continue its investigations into the use of mercenaries worldwide, and welcomes a new draft definition of 'mercenary' put forth by the Special Rapporteur.

Human Rights Council - 27th Session Draft Resolution (A/HRC/27/L.17)

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In this Draft Resolution, the Human Rights Council recalls previous resolutions from the General Assembly that condemn the use of mercenaries and iterates the Council's concern about the threats posed by mercenary activities in developing countries.  The Human Rights Council requests that States remain vigilant against the recruitment, training, hiring or financing of mercenaries or the use of private military companies in the destabilization of constitutional regimes.  This draft requests that the Working Group continue to monitor mercenary, private military and private security activities, including identifying the sources, causes and trends relating to the use of mercenaries and their impact on human rights.

UN General Assembly - 67th Session (A/RES/67/159)

Author: UN General Assembly
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In this resolution, the General Assembly calls upon the Working Group to report on the status of mercenaries in the world during the 68th session of the Assembly. The resolution also reiterates previous resolutions in its call for State cooperation with the Working Group and praise for the new definition established by the Special Rapporteur. 

UN Human Rights Council, 10th Session, (A/HRC/RES/10/11)

Author: UN Human Rights Council
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In this resolution, the Human Rights Council calls on the Working Group to consult with various stakeholders and experts on the content and scope of a possible draft convention on private military and security companies, and to report to the Council at its fifteenth session on the progress achieved in the elaboration of this draft legal instrument.

UN General Assembly - 68th Session (A/RES/68/152)

Author: UN General Assembly
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In this resolution, the General Assembly urges states to prevent the recruitment, training, financing, etc. of mercenaries from taking place on their territories, particularly at the connivance of private companies. It requests that states employing private military and security companies (PMSC) establish national regulations to oversee their activities. It expresses concern for the effect of PMSCs on human rights protections, particularly in situations of armed conflict, noting that PMSCs often escape accountability for abuses. Finally it urges states to cooperate with the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries as well as the open-ended working group. 

UN General Assembly, 66th Session, (A/RES/66/147)

Author: UN General Assembly
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In this resolution, the UN General Assembly largely echoes its resolutions of the past. In addition to expressing appreciation for recent developments by the UN open ended working group's panel, the General Assembly noted for the first time its support of a "comprehensive, legally binding international regulatory instrument" that is not the 1989 UN Convention on Mercenaries.  

Reports and Statements by the Working Group

Concept Note - Panel on Mercenaries and Human Rights Violations

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This concept note covers the panel on the privatization of war and its impacts on human rights. In this panel, the Working Group focuses specific attention on the impact of PMSCs on the right to self-determination during armed conflict. 

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Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report to the thirty-third session of the UN Human Rights Council contains research on national laws and regulations regarding private military and security companies. Law and regulations in six countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Republic of Moldova, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan), four countries in the Asia and Pacific region (Australia, New Zealand, Nauru and Papua New Guinea) and the United States of America in North America were reviewed in light of their effectiveness in protecting human rights and promoting accountability for violations. 

 

Concept Note - Panel Event on Foreign Fighters

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This concept note defines and addresses the use of foreign fighters, particularly in the recent context of conflict in Syria and the insurgency in Iraq. The Working Group states that it will explore the links between this phenomenon and human rights violations and provide recommendations to the 70th session of the General Assembly for steps to be taken to ensure the protection of human rights.

Report to the 30th session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/30/34)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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In this report, the Working Group presents an overview of their activities, information on the sessions of the Working Group, communications and country visits. The report presents the findings of the Working Group’s ongoing global study of national laws and regulations relating to private military and security companies.  The Working Group focused on the laws and regulations of eight countries in Central America and the Caribbean, eight countries in South America, and four countries in Europe.  Noting the differences in regulatory approaches among these countries, the Working Group promotes the need to effectively regulate the activities of private military and security companies and asks for participation in future studies.

Concept note on a possible legally binding instrument for the regulation of private military and security companies

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on Mercenaries issued this concept note ahead of its fourth session in late April, 2015.  The note outlines the Group's desire to elaborate on the international regulatory framework on the oversight of activities conducted by private military and security companies.  Also included is a draft convention based on national legislation studies that have revealed that countries approach regulation of PMSCs in different ways, resulting in patchy regulation that may be better addressed at the UN level.

Report to the 66th Session of General Assembly (A/66/317)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report presents an overview of the activities carried out by the Working Group since 25 August 2010, including a summary of the expert seminar on the state monopoly on the legitimate use of force (6 and 7 July 2011). The report also addresses the development of a draft convention on private military and security companies and other Working Group activities.

Report to the 62nd session of the Commission on Human Rights (E/CN.4/2006/11)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report presents the results the Group’s first session, held in October 2005 and March 2006 in Geneva. In the October session, the Working Group agreed to concentrate initially on two issues: the role of the state as the primary holder of the monopoly of the use of force, and governmental agreements that provide PMSCs with immunity for human rights violations. The second report, issued after the March session, Report to the 62nd session of the Commission on Human Rights on the Resumed First Session (E/CN.4/2006/11/Add.1) 3 March 2006 outlines the Working Group’s consultations with states and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations on the implementation of the Group’s mandate. This report also contains a text laying out the Group’s methods of work, including the establishment of a monitoring and complaint mechanism to address complaints regarding mercenaries’ activities.

Opening remarks by Ms. Navi Pillay, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights at the Panel on the Use of Private Military and Security Companies by The United Nations, Organized by the Working Group on the use of mercenaries

Author: Pillay, Navi
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Navi Pillay, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, makes a statement on the use of private military and security companies (PMSC) by the UN. Pillay advocates for clear policy and guidelines, including conducting due diligence on companies with which the UN may engage to ensure they meet appropriate standards with respect to human rights generally as well as employee rights.

Report to the 69th Session of the General Assembly (A/69/338)

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In this report, the Working Group presents an analysis of the United Nations' use of private security companies keeping in mind the complex challenges which private military and security companies pose to the United Nations and local populations.  In its analysis of  a year-long study concerning the United Nations' contracts with private military and security companies, the report reviews steps taken by the United Nations to reduce risks associated with the recruitment of private armed guards.  The report further examines ways that private military and security companies may be held accountable for possible human rights violations.

Report to the 62nd session of General Assembly (A/62/301)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report outlines the activities undertaken by the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries, including the Working Group’s second session, held from 19 to 24 February 2007 in Geneva, and describes field missions to Honduras, Ecuador, Peru, Fiji and Chile. It depicts country situations by region and summarizes the responses received to a questionnaire sent in April 2007 to all member states. The report also contains an overview of relevant international developments. Last, the report addresses the Working Group’s future activities and section VI contains its conclusions and recommendations.

Remarks by Gabor Rona, UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries, Montreux +5 Conference

Author: Rona, Gabor
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Remarks by Gabor Rona, member of the Working Group from the United States, to the Montreux +5 Conference held in December 2013. Rona discusses the role of the Working Group with regard to regulation of the activities of private military and security companies (PMSC). He notes that while the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers is a good framework, its voluntary nature necessitates robust oversight from national governments in the form of legislation and regulation. Gabor also calls for an international convention setting standards for PMSC.

Reports to the 7th session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/7/7)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report presents an overview of activities undertaken since 7 February 2007.  Section II details the Working Group's second session, field missions, communications and other activities.  Section III includes analysis on the state as the principal holder of the use of force and the state's relationship to the privatization of warfare and the PMSC industry, as well as the issue of accountability. The report concludes with a statement on the status of the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing, and Training of Mercenaries and the future activities of the working group.  Reports on consultations appear as addenda. 

Report to the 24th session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/24/45)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report presents findings of the Working Group’s ongoing survey of national laws and regulations relating to private military and/or security companies (PMSCs). The Working Group finds that, while there are common elements in laws of 13 studied African countries, the diverse contexts at the national level affect the way in which PMSCs are regulated and the regulatory approach of each country significantly varies. The Working Group reiterates the need for effective regulations of the activities of PMSCs and invites all Member States to facilitate the Working Group’s study on national legislation, which aims to identify trends and good practices and to develop guidance for Member States in exercising effective oversight of the activities of PMSCs.

Report to the 21st session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/21/43)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The Working Group provides a brief summary of its activities during the preceding months before discussing its project to collect all national legislation for private security services. As part of the project, the WG analyses three types of national laws (the U.S., South Africa and Switzerland) that reflect distinct approaches to regulating private security services.

Report to the 68th Session of the General Assembly (A/68/339)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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In this report, the Working Group presents an overview of its activities between August 2012 and August 2013. It also provides a brief update on the recent trends related to mercenaries and private military and security companies. The Working Group notes that the activities of private military and security companies have continued to evolve, with contractors involved worldwide in an expanding range of activities. The Working Group reviews efforts made by States to regulate private military and security companies and introduces its conclusions related to the first phase of the national legislation survey. The Working Group notes that various gaps remain regarding the transparency and accountability of private military and security companies and reiterates its position on the need for an international regulatory framework to monitor their activities.

Summary Report of the Panel Event on the use of PMSCs by the United Nations (31 July 2013, New York)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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During its nineteenth session, the Working Group held a panel event on the use of private military and security contractors (PMSC) by the United Nations. The first panel focused on the use of PMSCs as armed guards, the second panel on their use in peace operations. This report summarizes participants' remarks. Also see the Concept Note, agenda, and biographies of participants.

Archived video of the event and a subsequent press conference<

Report to the 10th session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/10/14)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report contains an overview of activities undertaken since 9 January 2008 and envisioned future activities, including a process of regional consultations with states to discuss the traditional role of states as the as the primary holder of the use of force. A section is also dedicated to standards, principles and guidelines for a new international convention on regulating PMSCs. Reports issued after country and regional consultations appear as addenda. 

  1. Communications to and from governments (A/HRC/10/14/Add.1)
  2. Mission to the United Kingdom (A/HRC/10/14/Add.2)
  3. Report on regional consultation in Moscow (A/HRC/10/14/Add.3)

Report to the 18th Session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/18/32)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report covers the communications sent by the Working Group between 18 April 2010 and 30 April 2011, including a summary of its missions to Equatorial Guinea, South Africa and Iraq. The report also analyzes the relationship between the draft convention elaborated by the Working Group, the Montreux Document, and the International Code of Conduct. Lastly, the Working Group makes a number of recommendations for member states. There are three addenda to the report, prepared following Working Group country visits: (1) Mission to Equatorial Guinea (A/HRC/18/32/Add.2); (2) Mission to South Africa (A/HRC/18/32/Add.3); and (3) Mission to Iraq (A/HRC/

Report to the 15th session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/15/25)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report is an overview of WG activities since the last report to the Human Rights Council in March 2009. Chapter II provides the overview of activities, including summaries of the WG missions to Afghanistan and the United States.  Chapter III describes the WG progress on developing a new draft convention on private military and security companies with rationale for the WG's proposals concerning a new legal instrument, its scope, and its content.  The WG also provides recommendations that the Member States consider the present draft proposal for a possible new international legal instrument to regulate PMSCs. Full country and regional reports appear as addenda. 

Report to the 4th session of the Human Rights Council (A/HRC/4/42)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report provides an overview of the activities undertaken, including country visits by the Working Group to Honduras and Ecuador (see addenda below) and extracts from communications sent and responses received from Governments and other actors. The report also explores contemporary manifestations of mercenarism , including the effects of PMSCs on the enjoyment of human rights, and contains recommendations for concerted, global efforts to respond to PMSC activity.

  1. Mission to Honduras (A/HRC/4/42/Add.1)
  2. Mission to Ecuador (A/HRC/4/42/Add.2)

Report to the 64th session of General Assembly (A/64/311)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report outlines the activities undertaken by the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries, including its work on a possible new draft international convention on the regulation of PMSCs. The report also presents findings from the country visits to Afghanistan and the U.S., and summarizes the second regional consultation for Eastern European and Central Asian countries held in October 2008. 

Report to the 65th session of General Assembly (A/65/325)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report presents an overview of the activities carried out by the Working Group since 20 August 2009, including the three regional consultations it held on traditional and new forms of mercenary activities. The report provides a brief overview of the UN policy vis-à-vis the use of private security contractors and information on the progress achieved in the elaboration of a draft PMSC convention. The main elements of the possible draft convention are contained in the annex of this report. 

Report to the 63rd session of General Assembly (A/63/325)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report discusses the activities undertaken by the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries, including its third session, held in April 2008, and summarizes the conclusions of the field mission it conducted in the United Kingdom. The report also contains an overview of international developments regarding the activities of PMSCs, including the draft principles elaborated by the Working Group for the possible development of regulatory mechanisms to address PMSC activities.

Report to the 61st session of General Assembly (A/61/341)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report provides an overview of the activities the Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries has undertaken since its creation, notably the consultations held at governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental levels. It is devoted to the methods of work adopted by the Working Group at its first session, and analyzes the responses received to the questionnaire about the Working Group sent in November 2005 to member states and organizations. The remainder of the report addresses mercenaries and mercenary-related activities in different parts of the world and international and national legislation on the issue of mercenarism.

Report to the 67th Session of the General Assembly (A/67/340)

Author: UN WG on the Use of Mercenaries
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In this report by the Working Group to the General Assembly, the Working group provides an overview of its activities and an update on recent activities of mercenaries and private military and security companies. It notes that activities of private military and security companies have continued to evolve and that these contractors are involved in an ever-expanding range of activities. The report expresses concern for the lack of transparency and accountability of companies and the absence of an international regulatory framework to monitor their activities. Lastly, the report reviews developments in the regulation of private military and security companies, including the international and national levels, and industry-led initiatives to raise standards.

Country Visits

Mission to the European Union

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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From April 25 to 28, 2016, the working group on mercenaries visited European Union institutions in Brussels, Belgium, to gather information on the use of private military and security companies and their effects on human rights and peoples' right to self-determination. This investigation was conducted in light of the recent attacks in Europe and sought to evaluate the use of foreign fighters, of which 5,000 to 6,000 were found to have traveled to the Middle East to engage in combat.

Second Mission to Honduras

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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During the Working Group's second visit to Honduras from 18–22 February 2013, the Group  followed up on their recommendations from the 2006 visit and explored the state of mercenary and private security activity in Honduras. The Working Group addressed the context of private security companies operating in Honduras, including various types of services, the legal and institutional framework, licensing processes and training. The visit also included examination of the impact of private security operations on human rights, particularly in regards to accountability and compensation for victims of abuse. The report concludes with several recommendations to improve training and licensing requirements, limit weapon ownership and prohibit active military and police from working as private security officers, among others. 

Mission to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland from 26 to 30 May 2008. The Working Group found that the UK does not have a registration system for PMSCs, though a Green Paper concerning the regulation of PMSCs in the UK does exist. However, the government has so far failed to enact any of those measures. The Working Group recommended the UK government to reexamine its regulatory framework for PMSCs and to put forward options for regulation at the global level.

Mission to Chile

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited Chile from 9 to 13 July 2007, and commended the government for its work in regulating PMSC activity and in strengthening its domestic oversight of PMSCs. The Working Group expressed concern over the recruitment of Chileans to work in Iraq and their subsequent treatment there. The Working Group recommended the government complete its study of PMSCs in Chile and establish a high-level body to monitor their activities.

Mission to Equatorial Guinea

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited Equatorial Guinea from 16 to 20 August 2010. In accordance with its mandate, the Working Group focused on the investigations and prosecutions relating to the attempted coup d'état of March 2004 and to the armed attack on the presidential palace by alleged mercenaries on 17 February 2009. The Working Group also inquired about the activities of private military and security companies operating in Equatorial Guinea. This report details the Working Group’s findings and recommendations.

Mission to Comoros

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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During a visit to Comoros from 7–16 May 2014, the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries examined the current state of mercenary activity in the country, noting the fragmented governance since independence in 1975. In particular, the Working Group examined the impact of mercenarism on the country's history of political tubulence and separatism. The Group also explored private security regulation within Comoros, expressing concern over the likely increase in private security companies and the lack of regulation around private maritime security services. 

Mission to Fiji

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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At the invitation of the Fijian government, the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited from 14 to 18 May 2007. The Working Group found that the well-trained Fijian military, combined with social and economic factors, contributed to private security recruitment in the country. As a result, the Working Group recommended the government of Fiji adopt a legal framework for the operation of PMSCs in their territory, and assist in the reintegration of individuals returning from security work abroad.

Mission to Somalia

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited Somalia from 8 to 14 December 2012. One of the principal human rights concerns in Somalia the Working Group found was that as rebuilding efforts get underway, there will be an influx of foreign PMSCs without sufficient regulation and control by the Somalian government. This could increase instability in an already fragile security environment and, as PMSC employees interact with the civilian population, might raise the human rights violations. In this regard, the Working Group notes with approval the ongoing efforts of the Federal Government to set rules governing the registration and regulation of PMSCs in Somalia through the National Security Commission.

Mission to Honduras

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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During a visit to Honduras from 21 to 25 August 2006, the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries examined the current state of mercenary activity in Honduras. The Working Group commended the Honduran government for measures taken to provide oversight of PMSCs, but noted that the regulatory framework needed to be strengthened. The Working Group also expressed concern over the training of Chilean nationals in Honduras and the recruitment of Honduran nationals for private security work in Iraq. A response to the report was sent by the Government of Honduras. 

Mission to United States of America

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited the U.S. from 20 July to 3 August 2009 and found that the U.S. must increase its oversight of PMSCs. In this report, the Group recommends (in part) that the U.S. support legislation that would limit the type of work that can be contracted; rescind immunity to contractors carrying out activities in other countries under bilateral agreements; investigate and prosecute human rights violations by PMSCs; establish a system of federal licensing of PMSCs; and set up a vetting procedure for awarding contracts to PMSCs.

Mission to South Africa

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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At the invitation of the Government of South Africa, the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited South Africa from 10 to 19 November 2010. The Working Group focused on the legislation on mercenaries and private military and security companies and also examined the framework that has been established to regulate the domestic private security industry in South Africa. This report details the Working Group’s findings and recommendations. 

Mission to Iraq

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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During its visit to Iraq, the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries learned that the number of negative or criminal incidents involving private military and security companies had decreased in recent years. Despite this decrease in incidents, the Working Group reported its concern about the lack of accountability for violations committed between 2003 and 2009 and recalled that the victims of such violations and their families are still waiting for justice. The Working Group urged the Government of Iraq to take the necessary steps to ensure that legislation on PMSCs is adopted as a matter of priority.

Mission to Côte d’Ivoire

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The Working Group on the use of mercenaries visited Côte d’Ivoire from 7 to 10 October 2014. The Working Group discussed with the authorities and representatives from foreign embassies and civil society organizations the positive initiatives that had taken place since the 2002 armed conflict and the post-election crisis in 2010. The Working Group gathered information on mercenaries and mercenary-related activities as well as the effects of the activities of private military and security companies on the enjoyment of human rights. The Working Group noted, among other issues, the proliferation of arms and their use by private security personnel as areas of concern and recommended further regulation.

Mission to Peru

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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From 29 January to 2 February 2007, the UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited Peru. The Working Group commended Peru's accession to the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries, and the Peruvian Congress' efforts to regulate PMSCs through appropriate national legislation. However, it suggested the legislation be strengthened. The Working Group also expressed its concern about the continued recruitment of Peruvians by private security companies. A response to the report was received from the Government of Peru.

Mission to Afghanistan

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The UN Working Group on the Use of Mercenaries visited Afghanistan from 4 to 9 April 2009. In this report, the Working Group notes the high numbers of PMSCs working in Afghanistan and the specific involvement of the U.S. as the employer of most PMSCs. The Afghan government adopted a regulation in 2008 to license PMSCs in Afghanistan, and the Working Group commends the regulation, but suggests that it be implemented widely, more forcefully, and with mechanisms for oversight.

Mission to Ecuador

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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During a visit to Ecuador from 28 August to 1 September 2006, the Working Group investigated the work of one PMSC, Epi Security and Investigations, as well as the general work of PMSCs in the oil sector, the status of Ecuadorian nationals working in Manta, and PMSC work in counter-narcotics. The Working Group recommended the government consider further legislative measures to govern PMSCs, accede to the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries, and further investigate the findings of the report of the Working Group. The report also contains a response from the Government of Ecuador. 

Mission to Honduras

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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The Working Group on the use of mercenaries visited Honduras from 18 to 22 February 2013. The Working Group discussed with the authorities the progress on the implementation of its recommendations made after the Working Group’s previous visit to Honduras in 2006. Although a number of developments since last visit was to be noted, the domestic law has not been amended to define and prohibit mercenaries, despite the accession to the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries and its adoption of the Organic Law of the National Police in 2008. Also, there had been little progress in regulating and monitoring the activities of PMSCs in Honduras and many of its recommendations still remain to be implemented.

National Legislation Studies on PMSCs

National Legislation on Private Security in the Countries of South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Argentina)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report summarizes the WG on Mercenaries' efforts to analyze and document legislation pertaining to the regulation of private military and security companies in eight Sough American countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay and Argentina. Specifically, the WG noted regulations related to the use of firearms by PMSCs and regulations on accountability and the existence of mechanisms for compensating victims of violations of their rights by providers of private security services. The report also notes which states have ratified the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries.

National Legislation on Private Security Services in Central America, Cuba and Mexico (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba and Mexico)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report provides a comprehensive comparative survey of national legislation governing the activities of private military and security companies (PMSCs) in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba and Mexico. The study examines regulations and laws pertaining to the use of firearms as well as accountability and compensation to victims of the activities of providers of private security services. The Working Group also reports the countries that ratified the International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries (1989).

Status Report on Anglophone Africa: Comprehensive Study and Analysis of National Legislation (Ghana, Mauritius, Sierra Leone, The Gambia, Nigeria, Uganda and Kenya)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report is a comprehensive analysis of national regulatory frameworks concerning private military and security companies in Ghana, The Gambia, Mauritius, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Kenya and Nigeria.  The study focuses on the extent tow which countries have ceded sovereignty in relation to maintaining law and order and preventing conflicts within their populations.  This study is intended to inform stakeholders and will inform the Working Group's report to the 25th session of the Human Rights Council in 2013.

Analysis of Eight Francophone African Countries' National Legislation on PMSCs (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, DR Congo, Mali, Morocco, Senegal, and Tunisia)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This report reviews laws in Francophone African nations that specifically pertain to private military and security companies.  It does not cover legislation such as criminal codes, general rules on business registration, or use of firearms.  The study provides analysis on the following topics: scope of legislation; licensing of PMSCs; training of personnel; permitted and prohibited activities of PMSCs; weapons rules for PMSCs; use of forces and firearms by PMSC personnel; accountability for violations of the law and provisions for victims of violations by PMSCs; and ratification of mercenary conventions.

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Comparative Analysis of the Regulation of Private Military and Security Companies in Eight Asian Countries (China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and the United Arab Emirates)

Author: UN WG on Mercenaries
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This is a comparative study of domestic legislation regarding private security companies in China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and the United Arab Emirates.  The impact of legislation regarding human rights is further explored within the context of each country.  The study does not include criminal codes, civil liability procedures, general laws on business registration or use of firearms.

Main Report
Executive Summary