Skip navigation

Sié Chéou-Kang CenterPrivate Security Monitor

A trainer gives a motivational speech to Afghan soldiers in the NATO weapons training classroom.

Regional Initiatives

Though many regional organizations have the authority to propose security policies and foster security-sector cooperation among member states, few have sought to regulate the activities of PMSCs. Rather, most PMSC regulation at the regional level occurs through the application of pre-existing mechanisms such as arms export laws, human rights standards, and prohibitions on small arms trafficking and transnational crime. Because these legal and regulatory mechanisms bear on the conduct of PMSCs, they appear below, organized by issuing entity.

African Union and ECOWAS

The African Union (AU) and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) are two inter-governmental organizations in Africa that are engaged in security sector reform and governance. In 2002 the AU replaced the Organization for African Unity (OAU), which, in 1977 drafted the Convention for the Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa. The Convention entered into force in April 1985 after ratification by the requisite number of states. Other attempts to combat mercenaries or regulate private security on the African continent have been at the national level or informal, such as information-sharing among governments. 


OAU Convention for the Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa

Author: Organization of African Unity
Publish Date:

 
Open PDF:
 

The African Convention on Mercenarism was signed on 3 July 1977 and entered into effect on 22 April 1985. The Convention contains an extensive definition of the mercenarism and seeks to prohibit (rather than regulate) mercenary activity. Accordingly, states are required to prevent the sheltering, organization, funding, equipping, training or any other form of assistance to mercenaries. 

Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), a group of former Soviet Republics, serves as a forum for state cooperation on issues of economic reform, defense and foreign policy. In 2005, the Defence and Security Commission of the CIS Inter-Parliamentary Assembly adopted a model law "On Countering Mercenarism." 


NA

European Union and Council of Europe

Although at the EU level there are as yet no specific laws or regulations with respect to the private military and security industry, the various EU institutions have been involved in recent years in developing policies towards them.


EU Strategic Framework and Action Plan on Human Rights and Democracy

Author: Council of the European Union
Publish Date:

Partners: DCAF

 
Open PDF:
 

The purpose of this action plan, released by the Council of the European Union, is to implement the EU Strategic Framework on Human Rights and Democracy, building upon the existing body of EU policy on human rights and democracy in external action.  Under Action Point 21, the Compliance with international humanitarian law (IHL), the EU undertakes to promote adhesion by third countries to the Montreux Document on Private Military and Security Companies, with responsibility for this given to Member States and the European External Action Service.

European Parliament resolution on the development of the common security and defence policy following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty (2010/2299(INI))

Author: European Parliament
Publish Date:

Partners: DCAF

 
Open PDF:
 

This broad resolution includes two paragraphs recommending to the Commission and the Council to initiate appropriate actions including the drafting of a Recommendation paving the way for a Directive aimed at harmonizing national measures regulating PMSC services, and for the external level, the drafting of a Code of Conduct paving the way for a Decision regulating the export of PMSC services to third states.

European Parliament resolution on the Annual Report on Human Rights in the World and the European Union's policy on the matter, including implications for the EU's strategic human rights policy (2011/2185(INI))

Author: European Parliament
Publish Date:

Partners: DCAF

 
Open PDF:
 

Among the European Parliament resolutions includes human rights in the world and the EU's policy on the matter of including implications for the EU's strategic human rights policy. It addresses the fact that transnational corporation increasingly rely on private military and security companies, which on occasion has given rise to human rights violations perpetrated by PMSC employees.

Definitions of Operating Environments for Contractors

Author: European Third Party Logistic Support Platform
Publish Date:

 

European Defence Agency participating Member States have established  the European Third Party Logistic Support Platform (EU TPLS Platform) to serve as an interactive showcase for European industries having expertise in the field of mission and operations-related TPLS. EU TPLS Platform has given three categories and their definitions of operating environments for contractors: permissive, semi-permissive, and  non-permissive. 

Organization of American States

With elevated and sustained growth levels of the private security industry in Latin America countries, the Organization of American States takes initiative to establish the need for regulatory legal frameworks that set forth processes and clearly-defined responsibilities for the industry and the government sector and further consolidate government entities to regulate public spending in security. 


NA