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Sié Chéou-Kang CenterPrivate Security Monitor

Speakers at this workshop on the Montreux Document , held in Santiago, Chile, describe how the Document sets forth international humanitarian law and human rights law as it applies to the activities of private military and security companies during armed conflict.

Reports & Analysis

Academic Institutions and Think Tanks

Academic Institutions

American University Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law

American University Washington College of Law established the Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in 1990 and developed expansive programming on new and emerging human rights issues. In conjunction with other programs at the Center, the Initiative for Human Rights in Business is focused on pressing issues of our times. Of particular concern is the Institute's ASSURE Project to develop trainings "to improve companies’ ability to adhere to social standards and uphold human rights in their operations; to identify best practices in multi-stakeholder regulation and develop guidance for implementing elements of effective voluntary standards; and to conduct and disseminate policy and business relevant research to improve companies’ human rights compliance."

Also, on September 19, 2013, the Center became a founding civil society member of the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Providers Association.


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Center for Security Studies - Zurich

The Center for Security Studies (CSS) is a Swiss academic center that undertakes research in the fields of international and Swiss security studies. The CSS also acts as a consultant to various political bodies and the general public; it makes a significant contribution to the academic education of future military officers, academics, and researchers; and it is engaged in research projects with a number of Swiss and international partners. The CSS is a member of the Center for Comparative and International Studies (CIS) of ETH Zurich and the University of Zurich.


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Duke University Kenan Institute for Ethics

The Kenan Institute at Duke University is an interdisciplinary institute committed to promoting moral reflection and shaping policy and practice. The institute holds workshops, publishes reports, and provides a forum for debate over the ethical practice of governments, companies, and international organizations. 


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Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy - National Defense University

The Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy is a part of the National Defense University based at Fort Lesley J McNair. The school is a senior service school designed to provide a graduate-level education on national security strategy, particularly in relation to the management and mobilization of national resources, to senior members of the armed forces, government, and private industry.


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Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

The Geneva Academy is a center of the University of Geneva; it is focused on instruction, research, expert meetings, and legal expertise in the branches of international law relating to situations of armed conflicts. 


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Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies - Geneva

The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, also known as the Graduate Institute Geneva, specializes in the study of the major global, international and transnational challenges facing the contemporary world. It also offers professional development programs and expertise to international actors from the public, private and non-profit sectors. The Institute produces research and publications on topics ranging from conflict and peacebuilding to human rights and non-state actors. 


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Institute for National Strategic Studies

The Institute for National Strategic Studies is a research center in the National Defense University of the U.S. military. The mission of INSS is to conduct strategic studies for the Secretary of Defense, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Unified Combatant Commands to support the national strategic components of the academic programs at NDU and to provide outreach to other US governmental agencies and to the broader national security community.


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Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies - FRAME Project

The FRAME Project at the Leuven Centre for Global Governance Studies is a large-scale, collaborative research project funded as part of the European Union's Seventh Framework Program. It is coordinated by the Leuven Centre and includes collaboration from 19 other research institutions. The project's goal is to examine the contribution of EU policies to human rights worldwide. 


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NYU Center on International Cooperation

The Center on International Cooperation (CIC) at New York University works to enhance international responses to humanitarian crises and global security threats through applied research and direct engagement with multilateral institutions and the wider policy community. It has an international reputation for agenda-setting work on post-conflict peacebuilding, global peace operations, and UN reform. 


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Princeton University Program in Law and Public Affairs

The Program in Law and Public Affairs at Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School has held meetings and issued reports discussing how security contractors working in zones of conflict should be trained, integrated with military forces, and held accountable.

Sié Chéou-Kang Center for International Security and Diplomacy

The Sié Chéou-Kang Center for International Security and Diplomacy at the Josef Korbel School of International Studies is dedicated to building knowledge on the evolving nature of security and diplomacy to better address pressing global issues. Its internationally-renowned faculty is committed to integrating the future leaders we teach into research, maintaining active conversation with policy leaders, and making complex issues legible to a broad audience. The Sié Center's many research projects focus particularly on managing violence and maximizing resilience at the local, national, regional, and global levels.

Strategic Studies Institute of the US Army War College

The Strategic Studies Institute (SSI) is the US Army's institute for geostrategic and national security research and analysis. It performs these activities in support of the US Army War College and its curricula, the leaders of the Army and Department of Defense, and the wider strategic community.


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University of the West Indies Institute of International Relations

The Institute of International Relations (IIR) is located on the St. Augustine Campus of The University of the West Indies in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Founded in October 1966 with funding from SWISSAID, IIR is a center for post-graduate study in international relations and diplomacy, for professional development and diplomatic training, and for critical policy analysis and debate.


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Think Tanks

Bonn International Center for Conversion

The Bonn International Center for Conversion is an independent, non-profit organization with a mission to conduct critical, problem-oriented, policy relevant research in response to the problems posed by organized violence. The BICC specializes in applied research, policy and technical advice, and data collection and analysis. The organization's research themes include civil-military boundaries, arms control, mobilization and demobilization, and the use of violence.


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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution mission is to conduct high-quality, independent research and, based on that research, to provide innovative, practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: 1) strengthen American democracy; 2) foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and 3) secure a more open, safe, prosperous and cooperative international system. In addition to the publications appearing below, the Brookings website contains a number of interesting and useful commentaries on private military and security services.


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Center for European Studies

The Center for European Studies is a Brussels based, EU funded think tank. Its goal is to unite the European public with the European Union by raising awareness of European issues. CES publishes policy briefs and research reports periodically. The organization is associated with the European People's Party and is a self described proponent of centre right ideas and thinking.


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Center for International Governance Innovation

The Center for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) is a think tank based in Canada. It focuses on four central themes: the global economy, global security, environment and energy, and global development. CIGI is an independent, non-partisan research facility, but does receive support from the government of Canada and the government of Ontario. 


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Center for International Maritime Security

The Center for International Maritime Security (CIMSEC) is a non-partisan think tank formed in 2012. CIMSEC encourages a diversity of views in the maritime domain.


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Center for New American Security

The mission of the Center for a New American Security (CNAS) is to develop strong, pragmatic and principled national security and defense policies. A key part of CNAS's mission is to inform and prepare the national security leaders of today and tomorrow. 


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Center for Strategic and International Studies

The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), is a bipartisan, nonprofit organization based in Washington, DC. The Center's scholars recommend policy options and initiatives to help sustain American prosperity and power. The center focuses upon the subject areas of defense and security, regional stability, and transnational challenges like energy and climate.


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Civil Military Fusion Center

The mission of the Civil-Military Fusion Center (CFC) is to facilitate the sharing of open-source unclassified information between civilian and military actors working on complex crises in order to enhance their sense of shared awareness. CFC achieves this mission through its website, weekly news reviews, monthly thematic reports, strategic engagements, and exercise support for free to subscribers. It was created in 2008 as an experiment by NATO Allied Command Transformation in Norfolk, Virginia, the CFC has since transitioned to a core capability within Allied Command Operations (ACO) in Europe. 


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Clingendael: Netherlands Institute for International Relations

Clingendael is an independent academic research center focused on Europe security issues in the context of Asia and the Middle East. The Institute provides training and research to civil servants, diplomats, NGOs and the private sector.


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Danish Institute for Human Rights

The Danish Institute for Human Rights (DIHR) is an independent research institution for human rights, financed primarily by the Danish state. It conducts research and analysis on a wide range of issues from children's rigths to terrorism. 


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Danish Institute for International Studies

The Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) is an independent research institution for international studies, financed primarily by the Danish state. It conducts research and analysis on a wide range of issues within the areas of globalization, security and development. 


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Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces

DCAF is an international foundation established in 2000 on the initiative of the Swiss Confederation, as the 'Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces'. DCAF contributes to enhancing security sector governance through security sector reform. One of DCAF's main areas of expertise is the privatization of security, and notably DCAF has been involved in the development of the International Code of Conduct for Private Security Service Providers and the Montreux Document. In addition, with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) DCAF has established the Knowledge Hub to combine policy frameworks, guidance documents and tools to support companies addressing challenges with respect to security and human rights. 

DCAF documents related to regulatory legislation for specific countries can be found listed by region and country on the National Regulations page.  


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Institute for Human Rights and Business

The Institute for Human Rights and Business (IPCS), describes itself as a "think and do tank" dedicated to understanding and promoting the relationship between human rights and business operations around the globe. IHRB is primarily focused on strengthening policy and practice, as well as research regard violations of human rights by companies.


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Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies

The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS), founded in 1996, is a premier South Asian think tank which conducts independent research on and provides an in-depth analysis of conventional and non-conventional issues related to national and South Asian security including nuclear issues, disarmament, non-proliferation, weapons of mass destruction, the war on terrorism, counter terrorism and armed conflict and peace processes in the region. Its research promotes greater understanding of India's foreign policy, especially India-China relations, India's relations with South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries, and South East Asia.


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Institute for Security Studies, South Africa

The Institute for Security Studies (ISS) is a pan-African applied policy research institute headquartered in Pretoria, South Africa with offices in Cape Town, South Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dakar, Senegal. Among other security topics, the Institute seeks to critically investigate the role of the private security sector in African conflicts, peacekeeping missions and humanitarian assistance operations in order to inform the development and application of appropriate norms and standards, including the revision of the 1977 OAU Convention for the Elimination of Mercenarism in Africa.


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International Institute of Humanitarian Law

The International Institute of Humanitarian Law (IIHL) is an independent, non-profit humanitarian organization founded in 1970. It is located in Sanremo, Italy. The Institute holds training for civil servants, workshops, conferences and produces research for publication on international human rights and humanitarian law.


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International Peace Institute

The International Peace Institute (IPI) is an independent, international not-for-profit think tank dedicated to promoting the prevention and settlement of conflicts between and within states by strengthening international peace and security institutions. To achieve its purpose, IPI employs a mix of policy research, convening, publishing and outreach. IPI was known as the International Peace Academy until early 2008.


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International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO)

Founded in 1959, the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) is an independent research institution. PRIO also conducts graduate training and is engaged in the promotion of peace through conflict resolution, dialogue and reconciliation, public information and policymaking activities.


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International Relations and Security Network

The International Relations and Security Network (ISN) is an online project of the Center for Security Studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. The mission of IRN is to facilitate security related dialogue between organizations and experts, and provide open source materials and tools for the international relations community.


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The Lowy Institute for International Policy

An independent, nonpartisan international policy think tank located in Sydney, Australia, The Lowy Institute focuses on Asia and the Pacific and the Australia's foreign policy objectives there.


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Overseas Development Institute

The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is a leading independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues located in the United Kingdom. The Humanitarian Policy Group at the ODI is dedicated to improving humanitarian policy and practice in response to conflict, instability, and disasters.


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Open Society Foundations

The Open Society Foundations are a network of programs, initiatives, think tanks and offices around the world founded by George Soros. The objectives of each OSF branch are slightly different, but they are bound by the common mission of OSF to build vibrant, tolerant societies whose governments are open and accountable to the population. The report featured here is by OSF - South Africa.


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Peace Research Institute, Frankfurt

The largest peace research center in Germany, PRIF-HSFK is directed towards identifying the causes of violent international and internal conflicts. PRIF examines issues of private security through its various research departments, which focus on areas such as corporate responsibility, state governance and responsibility, and international law.


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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact-tank that provides information on the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world. The Center conducts public opinion polling, demographic studies, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. The Pew Project for Excellence in Journalism has addressed how the use of private contractors by the U.S. is reported by media outlets.


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Priv-War

PRIV-WAR is a collaborative research project coordinated by the European University Institute through the Academy of European Law in cooperation with LUISS "Guido Carli" (Rome) and the other project partners: Justus Liebig Universität Giessen; Riga Graduate School of Law; Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II), Centre Thucydide; University of Sheffield and Utrecht University. The project has assessed the impact of the increasing use of private military companies and security companies in situations of armed conflict. It has examined the regulatory framework at national, European and international levels, with a view to ensuring improved compliance with international humanitarian law and human rights. The project was supported within the 7th Framework Research Programme by the European Commission DG Research and has been influential in shaping European Union policy on PMSCs, in particular its recommendations released in March 2011.


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RAND Corporation

The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decision-making through research and analysis. RAND focuses on the issues such as health, education, national security, international affairs, law and business, the environment, and more. In addition to the publications appearing below, the RAND website contains a number of interesting and useful commentaries on private military and security services.


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SEESAC

The South Eastern and Eastern Europe Clearinghouse for the Control of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SEESAC) operates under the guidance of the Regional Steering Group for Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) and the UN Resident Coordinator in Belgrade. Its main objective is to support the Stability Pact Regional Implementation Plan by building national and regional capacity to control and reduce the proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and contribute to enhanced stability, security and development in Southeastern Europe.


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SIPRI

Located in Sweden, SIPRI is an international institute dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.


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Small Arms Survey

The Small Arms Survey is an independent research center in Geneva. It serves as the principal international source of public information on all aspects of small arms and armed violence and as a resource for governments, policy-makers, researchers, and activists.


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Swisspeace

Swisspeace carries out research on violent conflicts and their peaceful transformation. The Foundation aims to build up Swiss and international organizations' civilian peacebuilding capacities by providing trainings, space for networking and exchange of experiences.


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U.S. Institute of Peace

The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an independent, nonpartisan, national institution established and funded by the US Congress. Its mission is to help prevent and resolve violent international conflicts, promote post-conflict stability and democratic transformations and increase peace-building capacity, tools and intellectual capital worldwide. USIP does this by empowering others with knowledge, skills and resources, as well as by its direct involvement in peacebuilding efforts around the globe.


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Wilton Park

Wilton Park is an executive agency of the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office. It facilitates conferences and dialogue upon security, political and economic issues. Some Wilton Park conferences have related to issues in private security services, relevant documents are listed below.


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